The Diamond Sutra

金剛般若波羅蜜經(姚秦 三藏法師 鳩摩羅什 )

 

[Translated from the Sanskrit by Edward Conze]

英文版係由Edward Conze翻譯自梵文版

 

Homage to the Perfection of Wisdom, the Lovely, the Holy!

 

Thus have I heard at one time. The Lord dwelt at Sravasti, in the Jeta Grove, in the garden of Anathapindika, together with a large gathering of monks, consisting of 1,250 monks, and with many Bodhisattvas, great beings. Early in the morning the Lord dressed, put on his cloak, took his bowl, and entered the great city of Sravasti to collect alms. When he had eaten and returned from his round, the Lord put away his bowl and cloak, washed his feet, and sat down on the seat arranged for him, crossing his legs, holding his body upright, and mindfully fixing his attention in front of him. Then many monks approached to where the Lord was, saluted his feet with their heads, thrice walked round him to the right, and sat down on one side.

如是我聞。一時,佛在舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園,與大比丘眾千二百五十人俱。爾時,世尊食時,著衣持缽,入舍衛大城乞食。於其城中,次第乞已,還至本處。飯食訖,收衣缽,洗足已,敷座而坐。

 

At that time the Venerable Subhuti came to that assembly, and sat down. Then he rose from his seat, put his upper robe over one shoulder, placed his right knee on the ground, bent forth his folded hands towards the Lord, and said to the Lord: 'It is wonderful O Lord, it is exceedingly wonderful, O Well-Gone, how much the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, have been helped with the greatest help by the Tathagata, the Arhat, the Fully Enlightened One. It is wonderful, O Lord, how much the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, have been favoured with the highest favour by the Tathagata, the Arhat, the Fully Enlightened One. How then, O Lord, should a son or daughter of good family, who have set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle, stand, how progress, how control their thoughts?'

時,長老須菩提在大眾中即從座起,偏袒右肩,右膝著地,合掌恭敬而白佛言:「希有!世尊!如來善護念諸菩薩,善付囑諸菩薩。世尊!善男子、善女人,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心,應云何住?云何降伏其心?」

 

After these words the Lord said to the Venerable Subhuti: 'Well said, well said, Subhuti! So it is, Subhuti, so it is, as you say! The Tathagata, Subhuti, has helped the Bodhisattvas, the great beings with the greatest help, and he has favoured them with the highest favour. Therefore, 'Subhuti, listen well, and attentively! I will teach you how those who have set out in the Bodhisattva vehicle should stand, how progress, how control their thoughts.'

佛言:「善哉,善哉。須菩提!如汝所說:如來善護念諸菩薩,善付囑諸菩薩,汝今諦聽!當為汝說:善男子、善女人,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心,應如是住,如是降伏其心。」

 

'So be it, O Lord', replied the Venerable Subhuti and listened.

「唯然。世尊!願樂欲聞。」

 

The Lord said: Here, Subhuti, someone who has set out in the vehicle of a Bodhisattva should produce a thought in this manner: 'As many beings as there are in the universe of beings, comprehended under the term "beings" egg-born, born from a womb, moistureborn, or miraculously born; with or without form; with perception, without perception, and with neither perception nor non-perception, as far as any conceivable form of beings is conceived: all these I must lead to Nirvana, into that Realm of Nirvana which leaves nothing behind. And yet, although innumerable beings have thus been led to Nirvana, no being at all has been led to Nirvana.' And why? If in a Bodhisattva the notion of a 'being' should take place, he could not be called a 'Bodhi-being'. 'And why? He is not to be called a Bodhi-being, in whom the notion of a self or of a being should take place, or the notion of a living soul or of a person.'

佛告須菩提:「諸菩薩摩訶薩應如是降伏其心!所有一切眾生之類:若卵生、若胎生、若濕生、若化生;若有色、若無色;若有想、若無想、若非有想非無想,我皆令入無餘涅槃而滅度之。如是滅度無量無數無邊眾生,實無眾生得滅度者。何以故?須菩提!若菩薩有我相、人相、眾生相、壽者相,即非菩薩。

 

Moreover, Subhuti, a Bodhisattva who gives a gift should not be supported by a thing, nor should he be supported anywhere. When he gives gifts he should not be supported by sightobjects, nor by sounds, smells, tastes, touchables, or mind-objects. For, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being should give gifts in such a way that he is not supported by the notion of a sign. And why? Because the heap of merit of that Bodhi-being, who unsupported gives a gift, is not easy to measure.

「復次,須菩提!菩薩於法,應無所住,行於布施,所謂不住色布施,不住聲香味觸法布施。須菩提!菩薩應如是布施,不住於相。何以故?若菩薩不住相布施,其福德不可思量。

 

What do you think, Subhuti, is the extent of space in the East easy to measure?

「須菩提!於意云何?東方虛空可思量不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord.

「不也,世尊!」

 

The Lord asked: In like manner, is it easy to measure the extent of space in the South, West or North, downwards, upwards, in the intermediate directions, in all the ten directions all round?

「須菩提!南西北方四維上下虛空可思量不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord.

「不也,世尊!」

 

The Lord said: Even so the heap of merit of that Bodhibeing who unsupported gives a gift is not easy to measure. That is why, Subhuti, those who have set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle, should give gifts without being supported by the notion of a sign.

「須菩提!菩薩無住相布施,福德亦復如是不可思量。須菩提!菩薩但應如所教住。

 

The Lord continued: 'What do you think, Subhuti, can the Tathagata be seen by the possession of his marks?'

「須菩提!於意云何?可以身相見如來不?」

 

Subhuti replied: 'No indeed, O Lord. And why? What has been taught by the Tathagata as the possession of marks, that is truly a no-possession of nomarks.'

「不也,世尊!不可以身相得見如來。何以故?如來所說身相,即非身相。」

 

The Lord said: 'Wherever there is possession of marks, there is fraud, wherever there is no-possession of no-marks there is no fraud. Hence the Tathagata is to be seen from no marks as marks.'

佛告須菩提:「凡所有相,皆是虛妄。若見諸相非相,則見如來。」

 

Subhuti asked: Will there be any beings in the future period, in the last time, in the last epoch, in the last 500 years, at the time of the collapse of the good doctrine who, when these words of the Sutra are being taught, will understand their truth?

須菩提白佛言:「世尊!頗有眾生,得聞如是言說章句,生實信不?」

 

 

The Lord replied: Do not speak thus, Subhuti! Yes, even then there will be such beings. For even at that time, Subhuti, there will be Bodhisattvas who are gifted with good conduct, gifted, with virtuous qualities, gifted with wisdom, and who, when these words of the Sutra are being taught, will understand their truth. And these Bodhisattvas, Subhuti, will not be such as have honoured only one single Buddha, nor such as have planted their roots of merit under one single Buddha only. On the contrary, Subhuti, those Bodhisattvas who, when these words of the Sutra are being taught, will find even one single thought of serene faith, they will be such as have honoured many hundreds of thousands of Buddhas, such as have planted their roots of merit under many hundreds of thousands of Buddhas. Known they are, Subhuti, to the Tathagata through his Buddha cognition, seen they are, Subhuti, by the Tathagata with his Buddha-eye, fully known they are, Subhuti, to the Tathagata. And they all, Subhuti, will beget and acquire an immeasurable and incalculable heap of merit.

佛告須菩提:「莫作是說。如來滅後,後五百歲,有持戒修福者,於此章句能生信心,以此為實,當知是人不於一佛二佛三四五佛而種善根,已於無量千萬佛所種諸善根,聞是章句,乃至一念生淨信者,須菩提!如來悉知悉見,是諸眾生得如是無量福德。

 

And why? Because, Subhuti, in these Bodhisattvas (1) no perception of a self takes place, (2) no perception of a being, (3) no perception of a soul, (4) no perception of a person. Nor do these Bodhisattvas have (5) a perception of a dharma, or (6) a perception of a nodharma. (7) No perception or (8) non-perception takes place in them.

何以故?是諸眾生無復我相、人相、眾生相、壽者相。「無法相,亦無非法相。

 

And why? If, Subhuti, these Bodhisattvas should have a perception of either a dharma, or a no-dharma, they would thereby seize on a self, a being, a soul, or a person. And why? Because a Bodhisattva should not seize on either a dharma or a no-dharma. Therefore this saying has been taught by the Tathagata with a hidden meaning: 'Those who know the discourse on dharma as like unto a raft, should forsake dharmas, still more so nodharmas.'

何以故?是諸眾生若心取相,則為著我人眾生壽者。

若取法相,即著我人眾生壽者。何以故?若取非法相,即著我人眾生壽者,是故不應取法,不應取非法。以是義故,如來常說:汝等比丘,知我說法,如筏喻者,法尚應捨,何況非法。」

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, is there any dharma which the Tathagata has fully known as 'the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment, or is there any dharma which the Tathagata has demonstrated?

「須菩提!於意云何?如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提耶?如來有所說法耶?」

 

Subhuti replied: No, not as I understand what the Lord has said. And why? This dharma which the Tathagata has fully known or demonstrated it cannot be grasped, it cannot be talked about, it is neither a dharma nor a no-dharma. And why? Because an Absolute exalts the Holy Persons.

須菩提言:「如我解佛所說義,無有定法名阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,亦無有定法,如來可說。何以故?如來所說法,皆不可取、不可說、非法、非非法。所以者何?一切賢聖,皆以無為法而有差別。」

 

The Lord then asked: What do you think, Subhuti, if a son or daughter of good family had filled this world system of 1,000 million worlds with the seven precious things, and then gave it as a gift to the Tathagatas, Arhats, Fully Enlightened Ones, would they on the strength of that beget a great heap of merit?

「須菩提!於意云何?若人滿三千大千世界七寶以用布施,是人所得福德,寧為多不?」

 

Subbuti replied: Great, O Lord, great, O Well-Gone, would that heap of merit be! And why? Because the Tathagata spoke of the 'heap of merit' as a non-heap. That is how the Tathagata speaks of 'heap of merit'.

須菩提言:「甚多,世尊!何以故?是福德即非福德性,是故如來說福德多。」

 

The Lord said: But if someone else were to take from this discourse on dharma but one stanza of four lines, and would demonstrate and illuminate it in full detail to others, then he would on the strength of that beget a still greater heap of merit, immeasurable and incalculable. And why? Because from it has issued the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment of the Tathagatas, Arhats, Fully Enlightened Ones, and from it have issued the Buddhas, the Lords. And why? For the Tathagata has taught that the dharmas special to the Buddhas are just not a Buddha's special dharmas. That is why they are called 'the dharmas special to the Buddhas'.

「若復有人,於此經中受持,乃至四句偈等,為他人說,其福勝彼。何以故?須菩提!一切諸佛,及諸佛阿耨多羅三藐三菩提法,皆從此經出。須菩提!所謂佛、法者,即非佛、法。

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, does it occur to the Streamwinner, 'by me has the fruit of a Streamwinner been attained'?

「須菩提!於意云何?須陀洹能作是念:『我得須陀洹果』不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord. And why? Because, O Lord, he has not won any dharma. Therefore is he called a Streamwinner. No sight-object has been won, no sounds, smells, tastes, touchables, or objects of mind. That is why he is called a 'Streamwinner'. If, O Lord, it would occur to a Streamwinner, 'by me has a Streamwinner's fruit been attained', then that would be in him a seizing on a self, seizing on a being, seizing on a soul, seizing on a person.

須菩提言:「不也,世尊!何以故?須陀洹名為入流,而無所入,不入色聲香味觸法,是名須陀洹。」

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, does it then occur to the Once-Returner, 'by me has the fruit of a Once-Returner been attained'?

「須菩提!於意云何?斯陀含能作是念:『我得斯陀含果』不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord. And why? Because there is not any dharma that has won Once-Returnership. That is why he is called a 'Once-Returner'.

須菩提言:「不也,世尊!何以故?斯陀含名一往來,而實無往來,是名斯陀含。」

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, does it then occur to the Never-Returner 'by me has the fruit of a Never-Returner been attained'?

「須菩提!於意云何?阿那含能作是念:『我得阿那含果』不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord. And why? Because there is not any dharma that has won Never Returnership. Therefore is he called a 'Never-Returner'.

須菩提言:「不也,世尊!何以故?阿那含名為不來,而實無不來,是故名阿那含。」

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, does it then occur to the Arhat, 'by me has Arhatship been attained'?

「須菩提!於意云何?阿羅漢能作是念:『我得阿羅漢道』不?」

 

Subhuti: No indeed, O Lord. And why? Because no dharma is called 'Arhat'. That is why he is called an Arhat. If, O Lord, it would occur to an Arhat. 'by me has Arhatship been attained', then that would be in him a seizing on a self, seizing on a being, seizing on a soul, seizing on a person. And why? I am, O Lord, the one whom the Tathagata, the Arhat, the Fully Enlightened One has pointed out as the foremost of those who dwell in Peace. I am, O Lord, an Arhat free from greed. And yet, O Lord, it does not occur to me, 'an Arhat am I and free from greed'. If, O Lord, it could occur to me that I have attained Arhatship, then the Tathagata would not have declared of me that 'Subhuti, this son of good family, who is the foremost of those who dwell in Peace, does not dwell anywhere; that is why he is called "a dweller in Peace, a dweller in Peace"'.

須菩提言:「不也,世尊!何以故?實無有法名阿羅漢。世尊!若阿羅漢作是念:『我得阿羅漢道』,即為著我人眾生壽者。世尊!佛說我得無諍三昧,人中最為第一,是第一離欲阿羅漢。我不作是念:『我是離欲阿羅漢』。世尊!我若作是念:『我得阿羅漢道』,世尊則不說須菩提是樂阿蘭那行者!以須菩提實無所行,而名須菩提是樂阿蘭那行。」

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, is there any dharma which the Tathagata has learned from Dipankara, the Tathagata, the Arhat, the Fully Enlightened One?

佛告須菩提:「於意云何?如來昔在燃燈佛所,於法有所得不?」

 

Subhuti replied: Not so, O Lord, there is not.

「世尊!如來在燃燈佛所,於法實無所得。」

 

The Lord said: If any Bodhisattva would say, 'I will create harmonious Buddhafields', he would speak falsely. And why? 'The harmonies of Buddhafields, the harmonies of Buddhafields', Subhuti, as no-harmonies have they been taught by the Tathagata. Therefore he spoke of 'harmonious Buddhafields'.

「須菩提!於意云何?菩薩莊嚴佛土不?」

「不也,世尊!何以故?莊嚴佛土者,則非莊嚴,是名莊嚴。」

 

Therefore then, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, should produce an unsupported thought, i.e. a thought which is nowhere supported, a thought unsupported by sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touchables or mind-objects.

「是故須菩提,諸菩薩摩訶薩應如是生清淨心,不應住色生心,不應住聲香味觸法生心,應無所住而生其心。」

 

Suppose, Subhuti, there were a man endowed with a body, a huge body, so that he had a personal existence like Sumeru, king of mountains. Would that, Subhuti, be a huge personal existence?

「須菩提!譬如有人,身如須彌山王,於意云何?是身為大不?」

 

Subhuti replied: Yes, huge, O Lord, huge, O Well-Gone, would his personal existence be. And why so? 'Personal existence, personal existence', as no-existence has that been taught by the Tathagata; for not, O Lord, is that existence or non-existence. Therefore is it called 'personal existence'.

須菩提言:「甚大,世尊!何以故?佛說非身,是名大身。」

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, if there were as many Ganges rivers as there are grains of sand in the large river Ganges, would the grains of sand in them be many?

「須菩提!如琲e中所有沙數,如是沙等琲e,於意云何?是諸琲e沙寧為多不?」

 

Subhuti replied: Those Ganges rivers would indeed be many, much more so the grains of sand in them.

須菩提言:「甚多,世尊!但諸琲e尚多無數,何況其沙!」

 

The Lord said: This is what I announce to you, Subhuti, this is what I make known to you, if some woman or man had filled with the seven precious things as many world systems as there are grains of sand in those Ganges rivers, and would give them as a gift to the Tathagatas, Arhats, fully Enlightened Ones what do you think, Subhuti, would that woman or man on the strength of that beget a great heap of merit?

「須菩提!我今實言告汝:若有善男子、善女人,以七寶滿爾所琲e沙數三千大千世界,以用布施,得福多不?」

 

Subhuti replied: Great, O Lord, great O Well-Gone, would that heap of merit be, immeasurable and incalculable.

須菩提言:「甚多,世尊!」

 

The Lord said: But if a son or daughter of good family had taken from this discourse on dharma but one stanza of four lines, and were to demonstrate and illuminate it to others, then they would on the strength of that beget a still greater heap of merit, immeasurable and incalculable.

佛告須菩提:「若善男子、善女人,於此經中,乃至受持四句偈等,為他人說,而此福德勝前福德。

 

Moreover, Subhuti, that spot of earth where one has taken from this discourse on dharma but one stanza of four lines, taught or illumined it, that spot of earth will be a veritable shrine for the whole world with its gods, men and Asuras. What then should we say of those who will bear in mind this discourse on dharma in its entirety, who will recite, study, and illuminate it in full detail for others! Most wonderfully blest, Subhuti, they will be! And on that spot of earth, Subhuti, either the Teacher dwells, or a sage representing him.

復次,須菩提!隨說是經,乃至四句偈等,當知此處,一切世間、天、人、阿修羅,皆應供養,如佛塔廟,何況有人盡能受持讀誦。須菩提!當知是人成就最上第一希有之法,若是經典所在之處,則為有佛,若尊重弟子。」

 

Subhuti asked: What then, O Lord, is this discourse on dharma, and how should I bear it in mind?

爾時,須菩提白佛言:「世尊!當何名此經?我等云何奉持?」

 

The Lord replied: This discourse on dharma, Subhuti, is called 'Wisdom which has gone beyond', and as such should you bear it in mind!

佛告須菩提:「是經名為《金剛般若波羅蜜》,以是名字,汝當奉持。

 

And why? Just that which the Tathagata has taught as the wisdom which has gone beyond, just that He has taught as not gone beyond. Therefore is it called 'Wisdom which has gone beyond'. What do you think, Subhuti, is there any dharma which the Tathagata has taught?

所以者何?須菩提!佛說般若波羅蜜,則非般若波羅蜜。須菩提!於意云何?如來有所說法不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord, there is not.

須菩提白佛言:「世尊!如來無所說。」

 

The Lord said: When, Subhuti, you consider the number of particles of dust in this world system of 1,000 million worlds would they be many?

「須菩提!於意云何?三千大千世界所有微塵是為多不?」

 

Subhuti replied: Yes, O Lord.

須菩提言:「甚多,世尊!」

 

Because what was taught as particles of dust by the Tathagata, as no-particles that was taught by the Tathagata. Therefore are they called 'particles of dust'. And this world-system the Tathagata has taught as nosystem. Therefore is it called a 'world system'.

「須菩提!諸微塵,如來說非微塵,是名微塵。如來說:世界,非世界,是名世界。

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, can the Tathagata be seen by means of the thirty-two marks of the superman?

「須菩提!於意云何?可以三十二相見如來不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord. And why? Because those thirty-two marks of the superman which were taught by the Tathagata, they are really no-marks. Therefore are they called 'the thirty-two marks of the superman'.
「不也,世尊!何以故?如來說:三十二相,即是非相,是名三十二相。」

 

The Lord said: And again, Subhuti, suppose a woman or a man were to renounce all their belongings as many times as there are grains of sand in the river Ganges; and suppose that someone else, after taking from this discourse on Dharma but one stanza of four lines, would demonstrate it to others. Then this latter on the strength of that would beget a greater heap of merit, immeasurable and incalculable.

「須菩提!若有善男子、善女人,以琲e沙等身命布施;若復有人,於此經中,乃至受持四句偈等,為他人說,其福甚多!」

 

Thereupon the impact of Dharma moved the Venerable Subhuti to tears. Having wiped away his tears, he thus spoke to the Lord: It is wonderful, O Lord, it is exceedingly wonderful, O Well-Gone, how well the Tathagata has taught this discourse on Dharma. Through it cognition has been produced in me. Not have I ever before heard such a discourse on Dharma. Most wonderfully blest will be those who, when this Sutra is being taught, will produce a true perception. And that which is true perception, that is indeed no perception. Therefore the Tathagata teaches, 'true perception, true perceptions'. It is not difficult for me to accept and believe this discourse on Dharma when it is being taught. But those beings who will be in a future period, in the last time, in the last epoch, in the last 500 years, at the time of the collapse of the good doctrine, and who, O Lord, will take up this discourse on Dharma, bear it in mind, recite it, study it, and illuminate it in full detail for others, these will be most wonderfully blest. In them, however, no perception of a self will take place, or of a being, a soul, or a person.

爾時,須菩提聞說是經,深解義趣,涕淚悲泣,而白佛言:「希有,世尊!佛說如是甚深經典,我從昔來所得慧眼,未曾得聞如是之經。世尊!若復有人得聞是經,信心清淨,則生實相,當知是人,成就第一希有功德。世尊!是實相者,則是非相,是故如來說名實相。世尊!我今得聞如是經典,信解受持不足為難,若當來世,後五百歲,其有眾生,得聞是經,信解受持,是人則為第一希有。

 

And why? That, O Lord, which is perception of self, that is indeed no perception. That which is perception of a being, a soul or a person, that is indeed no perception. And why? Because the Buddhas, the Lords have left all perceptions behind. 

何以故?此人無我相、人相、眾生相、壽者相。所以者何?我相即是非相,人相、眾生相、壽者相即是非相。何以故?離一切諸相,則名諸佛。」

 

The Lord said: So it is, Subhuti. Most wonderfully blest will be those beings who, on hearing this Sutra, will not tremble, nor be frightened, or terrified. And why? The Tathagata has taught this as the highest (parama-) perfection (paramita). And what the Tathagata teaches as the highest perfection, that also the innumerable (aparimana) Blessed Buddhas do teach. Therefore is it called the 'highest perfection'.

佛告須菩提:「如是!如是!若復有人,得聞是經,不驚、不怖、不畏,當知是人甚為希有。何以故?須菩提!如來說:第一波羅蜜,非第一波羅蜜,是名第一波羅蜜。

 

Moreover, Subhuti, the Tathagata's perfection of patience is really no perfection. And why? Because, Subhuti, when the king of Kalinga cut my flesh from every limb, at that time I had no perception of a self, of a being, of a soul, or a person. And why? If, Subhuti, at that time I had had a perception of self, I would also have had a perception of ill-will at that time. And so, if I had had a perception of a being, of a soul, or of a person. With my superknowledge I recall that in the past I have for five hundred births led the life of a sage devoted to patience. Then also have I had no perception of a self, a being, a soul, or a person.

須菩提!忍辱波羅蜜,如來說非忍辱波羅蜜。何以故?須菩提!如我昔為歌利王割截身體,我於爾時,無我相、無人相、無眾生相、無壽者相。何以故?我於往昔節節支解時,若有我相、人相、眾生相、壽者相,應生瞋恨。須菩提!又念過去於五百世作忍辱仙人,於爾所世,無我相、無人相、無眾生相、無壽者相。

 

Therefore then, Subhuti, the Bodhi-being, the great being, after he has got rid of all perceptions, should raise his thought to the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment. He should produce a thought which is unsupported by forms, sounds, smells, tastes, touchables, or mind-objects, unsupported by dharma, unsupported by no-dharma, unsupported by anything. And why? All supports have actually no support. It is for this reason that the Tathagata teaches: By an unsupported Bodhisattva should a gift be given, not by one who is supported by forms, sounds, smells, tastes, touchables, or mind-objects.

是故須菩提!菩薩應離一切相,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心,不應住色生心,不應住聲香味觸法生心,應生無所住心。若心有住,則為非住。「是故佛說:菩薩心不應住色布施。

 

And further, Subhuti, it is for the weal of all beings that a Bodhisattva should give gifts in this manner. And why? This perception of a being, Subhuti, that is just a non-perception. Because the Tathagata speaks in accordance with reality, speaks the truth, speaks of what is, not otherwise. A Tathagata does not speak falsely.

須菩提!菩薩為利益一切眾生,應如是布施。如來說:一切諸相,即是非相。又說:一切眾生,則非眾生。須菩提!如來是真語者、實語者、如語者、不誑語者、不異語者。

 

But nevertheless, Subhuti, with regard to that dharma which the Tathagata has fully known and demonstrated, on account of that there is neither truth nor fraud. In darkness a man could not see anything. Just so should be viewed a Bodhisattva who has fallen among things, and who, fallen among things, renounces a gift. A man with eyes would, when the night becomes light and the sun has arisen, see manifold forms. Just so should be viewed a Bodhisattva who has not fallen among things, and who, without having fallen among things, renounces a gift.

「須菩提!如來所得法,此法無實無虛。須菩提!若菩薩心住於法而行布施,如人入暗,則無所見;若菩薩心不住法而行布施,如人有目,日光明照,見種種色。

 

Furthermore, Subhuti, those sons and daughters of good family who will take up this discourse on Dharma, will bear it in mind, recite, study, and illuminate it in full detail for others, they have been known, Subhuti, by the Tathagata with his Buddha-cognition, they have been seen, Subhuti, by the Tathagata with his Buddha-eye, they have been fully known by the Tathagata. All these beings, Subhuti, will beget and acquire an immeasurable and incalculable heap of merit.

「須菩提!當來之世,若有善男子、善女人,能於此經受持讀誦,則為如來以佛智慧,悉知是人,悉見是人,皆得成就無量無邊功德。

 

And if, Subhuti, a woman or man should renounce in the morning all their belongings as many times as there are grains of sand in the river Ganges, and if they should do likewise at noon and in the evening, and if in this way they should renounce all their belongings for many hundreds of thousands of millions of milliards of aeons; and someone else, on hearing this discourse on Dharma, would not reject it; then the latter would on the strength of that beget a greater heap of merit, immeasurable and incalculable. What then should we say of him who, after writing it, would learn it, bear it in mind, recite, study and illuminate it in full detail for others?  

「須菩提!若有善男子、善女人,初日分以琲e沙等身布施,中日分復以琲e沙等身布施,後日分亦以琲e沙等身布施,如是無量百千萬億劫以身布施;若復有人,聞此經典,信心不逆,其福勝彼,何況書寫、受持、讀誦、為人解說。

 

Moreover, Subhuti, (1) unthinkable and (2) incomparable is this discourse on Dharma. (3) The Tathagata has taught it for the weal of beings who have set out in the best, in the most excellent vehicle. Those who will take up this discourse on Dharma, bear it in mind, recite, study and illuminate it in full detail for others, the Tathagata has known them with his Buddha-cognition, the Tathagata has seen them with his Buddha-eye, the Tathagata has fully known them. All these beings, Subhuti, will be blest with an immeasurable heap of merit, they will be blest with a heap of merit unthinkable, incomparable, measureless and illimitable. All these beings, Subhuti, will carry along an equal share of enlightenment. And why? (4) Because it is not possible, Subhuti, that this discourse on Dharma could be heard by beings of inferior resolve, nor by such as have a self in view, a being, a soul, or a person. Nor can beings who have not taken the pledge of Bodhi-beings either hear this discourse on Dharma, or take it up, bear it in mind, recite or study it. That cannot be.

「須菩提!以要言之,是經有不可思議、不可稱量、無邊功德。如來為發大乘者說,為發最上乘者說。若有人能受持讀誦,廣為人說,如來悉知是人,悉見是人,皆成就不可量、不可稱、無有邊、不可思議功德,如是人等,則為荷擔如來阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。何以故?須菩提!若樂小法者,著我見、人見、眾生見、壽者見,則於此經,不能聽受讀誦、為人解說。

 

(1) Moreover, Subhuti, the spot of earth where this Sutra will be revealed, that spot of earth will be worthy of worship by the whole world with its Gods, men and Asuras, worthy of being saluted respectfully, worthy of being honoured by circumambulation, like a shrine will be that spot of earth.

「須菩提!在在處處,若有此經,一切世間、天、人、阿修羅,所應供養;當知此處,則為是塔,皆應恭敬,作禮圍繞,以諸華香而散其處。

 

And yet Subhuti, those sons and daughters of good family, who will take up these very Sutras, and will bear them in mind, recite and study them, they will be humbled, well humbled they will be! And why? The impure deeds which these beings have done in their former lives, and which are liable to lead them into the states of woe, in this very life they will, by means of that humiliation, (2) annul those impure deeds of their former lives, and (3) they will reach the enlightenment of a Buddha.

「復次,須菩提!善男子、善女人,受持讀誦此經,若為人輕賤,是人先世罪業,應墮惡道,以今世人輕賤故,先世罪業則為消滅,當得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。

 

With my superknowledge, Subhuti, I recall that in the past period, long before Dipankara, the Tathagata, Arhat, fully Enlightened One, during incalculable, quite incalculable aeons, I gave satisfaction by loyal service to 84,000 million milliards of Buddhas, without ever becoming again estranged from them. But the heap of merit, Subhuti, from the satisfaction I gave to those Buddhas and Lords without again becoming estranged from them compared with the heap of merit of those who in the last time, the last epoch, the last five hundred years, at the time of the collapse of the good doctrine, will take up these very Sutras, bear them in mind, recite and study them, and will illuminate them in full detail for others, it does not approach one hundredth part, not one thousandth part, nor a one hundred thousandth part, not a ten millionth part, nor a one hundred millionth part, nor a 100,000 millionth part. It does not bear number, nor fraction, nor counting, nor similarity, nor comparison, nor resemblance.

「須菩提!我念過去無量阿僧祇劫,於燃燈佛前,得值八百四千萬億那由他諸佛,悉皆供養承事,無空過者;若復有人,於後末世,能受持讀誦此經,所得功德,於我所供養諸佛功德,百分不及一,千萬億分、乃至算數譬喻所不能及。

 

(4) If moreover, Subhuti, I were to teach, the heap of merit of those sons and daughters of good family, and how great a heap of merit they will at that time beget and acquire, beings would become frantic and confused. Since, however, (1) Moreover, Subhuti, the spot of earth where this Sutra will be revealed, that spot of unthinkable karma result should be expected from it.

「須菩提!若善男子、善女人,於後末世,有受持讀誦此經,所得功德,我若具說者,或有人聞,心則狂亂,狐疑不信。須菩提!當知是經義不可思議,果報亦不可思議。」

 

[(Subhuti asked: How, O Lord, should one set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle stand, how progress, how control his thoughts?

爾時,須菩提白佛言:「世尊!善男子、善女人,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心,云何應住?云何降伏其心?」

 

The Lord replied: Here, Subhuti, someone who has set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle should produce a thought in this manner: 'all beings I must lead to Nirvana, into that Realm of Nirvana which leaves nothing behind; and yet, after beings have thus been led to Nirvana, no being at all has been led to Nirvana'. And why? If in a Bodhisattva the notion of a 'being' should take place, he could not be called a 'Bodhibeing'. And likewise if the notion of a soul, or a person should take place in him.)] And why? He who has set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle he is not one of the dharmas.

佛告須菩提:「善男子、善女人,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提者,當生如是心,我應滅度一切眾生。滅度一切眾生已,而無有一眾生實滅度者。何以故?若菩薩有我相、人相、眾生相、壽者相,則非菩薩。所以者何?須菩提!實無有法發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提者。

 

What do you think Subhuti, is there any dharma by which the Tathagata, when he was with Dipankara the Tathagata, has fully known the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment?

「須菩提!於意云何?如來於燃燈佛所,有法得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提不?」

 

Subhuti replied: There is not any dharma by which the Tathagata, when he was with the Tathagata Dipankara, has fully known the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment.

「不也,世尊!如我解佛所說義,佛於燃燈佛所,無有法得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。」

 

The Lord said: It is for this reason that the Tathagata Dipankara then predicted of me: 'You, young Brahmin, will be in a future period a Tathagata, Arhat, fully Enlightened, by the name of Shakyamuni!'

佛言:「如是,如是。須菩提!實無有法如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。須菩提!若有法如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,燃燈佛則不與我授記:『汝於來世,當得作佛,號釋迦牟尼。』以實無有法得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,是故燃燈佛與我授記,作是言:『汝於來世,當得作佛,號釋迦牟尼。』何以故?如來者,即諸法如義。

 

And why? 'Tathagata', Subhuti, is synonymous with true Suchness (tathata). And whosoever, Subhuti, were to say, 'The Tathagata has fully known the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment', he would speak falsely. And why? [(There is not any dharma by which the Tathagata has fully known the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment. And that dharma which the Tathagata has fully known and demonstrated, on account of that there is neither truth nor fraud.)] Therefore the Tathagata teaches, all dharmas are the Buddha's own and special dharmas'. And why? 'All-dharmas', Subhuti, have as no-dharmas been taught by the Tathagata. Therefore all dharmas are called the Buddha's own and special dharmas. [(Just as a man, Subhuti, might be endowed with a body, a huge body.)]

 「若有人言:如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。須菩提!實無有法,佛得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。須菩提!如來所得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,於是中無實無虛。是故如來說:一切法皆是佛法。須菩提!所言一切法者,即非一切法,是故名一切法。

「須菩提!譬如人身長大。」

 

Subhuti said: That man of whom the Tathagata spoke as 'endowed with a body, a huge body', as a no-body he has been taught by the Tathagata. Therefore is he called, 'endowed with a body, a huge body'.

須菩提言:「世尊!如來說:人身長大,則為非大身,是名大身。」

 

The Lord said: So it is, Subhuti. The Bodhisattva who would say, I will lead beings to Nirvana', he should not be called a 'Bodhi-being'. And why? Is there, Subhuti, any dharma named 'Bodhi-being'? Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord. The Lord said: Because of that the Tathagata teaches, 'selfless are all dharmas, they have not the character of living beings, they are without a living soul, without personality'.

 [(If any Bodhisattva should say, 'I will create harmonious Buddhafields')], he likewise should not be called a Bodhi-being. [(And why? 'The harmonies of Buddhafields, the harmonies of Buddhafields', Subhuti, as no-harmonies have they been taught by the Tathagata. Therefore he spoke of 'harmonious Buddhafields'.)] The Bodhisattva, however, Subhuti, who is intent on 'without self are the dharmas, without self are the dharmas', him the Tathagata, the Arhat, the fully Enlightened One has declared to be a Bodhi-being, a great being.

「須菩提!菩薩亦如是。若作是言:『我當滅度無量眾生』,則不名菩薩。何以故?須菩提!無有法名為菩薩。是故佛說:一切法無我、無人、無眾生、無壽者。須菩提!若菩薩作是言:『我當莊嚴佛土』,是不名菩薩。何以故?如來說:莊嚴佛土者,即非莊嚴,是名莊嚴。須菩提!若菩薩通達無我、法者,如來說名真是菩薩。

 

What do you think, Subhuti, does the fleshly eye of the Tathagata exist?

「須菩提!於意云何?如來有肉眼不?」

 

Subhuti replied: So it is, O Lord, the fleshly eye of the Tathagata does exist.

「如是,世尊!如來有肉眼。」

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, does the Tathagata's heavenly eye exist, his wisdom eye, his Dharma-eye, his Buddha-eye?

Subhuti replied: So it is, O Lord, the heavenly eye of the Tathagata does exist, and so does his wisdom eye, his Dharma-eye and his Buddha-eye.

「須菩提!於意云何?如來有天眼不?」

「如是,世尊!如來有天眼。」

 「須菩提!於意云何?如來有慧眼不?」

 「如是,世尊!如來有慧眼。」

 「須菩提!於意云何?如來有法眼不?」

 「如是,世尊!如來有法眼。」

 「須菩提!於意云何?如來有佛眼不?」

 「如是,世尊!如來有佛眼。」

 

The Lord said: What do you think, Subhuti, has the Tathagata used the phrase, 'as many grains of sand as there are in the great river Ganges'?

「須菩提!於意云何?琲e中所有沙,佛說是沙不?」

 

Subhuti replied: So it is, O Lord, so it is, O Well-Gone! The Tathagata has done so.

「如是,世尊!如來說是沙。」

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, if there were as many Ganges rivers as there are grains of sand in the great river Ganges, and if there were as many world systems as there are grains of sand in them, would those world systems be many?

「須菩提!於意云何?如一琲e中所有沙,有如是沙等琲e,是諸琲e所有沙數,佛世界如是,寧為多不?」

 

Subhuti replied: So it is, O Lord, so it is, O Well- Gone, these world systems would be many.

「甚多,世尊!」

 

The Lord said: As many beings as there are in these world systems, of them I know, in my wisdom, the manifold trends of thought. And why? 'Trends of thought, trends of thought', Subhuti, as no trends have they been taught by the Tathagata. Therefore are they called 'trends of thought'. And why? Past thought is not got at; future thought is not got at; present thought is not got at.

佛告須菩提:「爾所國土中,所有眾生,若干種心,如來悉知。何以故?如來說:諸心皆為非心,是名為心。所以者何?須菩提!過去心不可得,現在心不可得,未來心不可得。

 

What do you think, Subhuti, if a son or daughter of good family had filled this world system of 1,000 million worlds with the seven precious things, and then gave it as a gift to the Tathagatas, the Arhats, the fully Enlightened Ones, would they on the strength of that beget a great heap of merit?

「須菩提!於意云何?若有人滿三千大千世界七寶以用布施,是人以是因緣,得福多不?」

 

Subhuti replied: they would, O Lord, they would, O Well- Gone!

「如是,世尊!此人以是因緣,得福甚多。」

 

The Lord said: So it is, Subhuti, so it is. On the strength of that this son or daughter of good family would beget a great heap of merit, immeasurable and incalculable. But if, on the other hand, there were such a thing as a heap of merit, the Tathagata would not have spoken of a 'heap of merit'.

「須菩提!若福德有實,如來不說得福德多;以福德無故,如來說得福德多。

 

What do you think, Subhuti, is the Tathagata to be seen by means of the accomplishment of his form-body?

「須菩提!於意云何?佛可以具足色身見不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord, the Tathagata is not to be seen by means of the accomplishment of his form-body. And why? 'Accomplishment of his form-body, accomplishment of his form-body', this, O Lord, has been taught by the Tathagata as no-accomplishment. Therefore is it called 'accomplishment of his form-body'.

「不也,世尊!如來不應以色身見。何以故?如來說:具足色身,即非具足色身,是名具足色身。」

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, is the Tathagata to be seen through his possession of marks?

「須菩提!於意云何?如來可以具足諸相見不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord. And why? This possession of marks, O Lord, which has been taught by the Tathagata, as a no-possession of no-marks this has been taught by the Tathagata. Therefore is it called 'possession of marks'.

「不也,世尊!如來不應以具足諸相見。何以故?如來說:諸相具足,即非具足,是名諸相具足。」

 

The Lord asked: What do you think, Subhuti, does it occur to the Tathagata, 'by me has Dharma been demonstrated'? Whosoever, Subhuti, would say, 'the Tathagata has demonstrated Dharma', he would speak falsely, he would misrepresent me by seizing on what is not there. And why? 'Demonstration of dharma, demonstration of dharma', Subhuti, there is not any dharma which could be got at as a demonstration of dharma.

「須菩提!汝勿謂如來作是念:『我當有所說法。』莫作是念,何以故?若人言:如來有所說法,即為謗佛,不能解我所說故。須菩提!說法者,無法可說,是名說法。」

 

Subhuti asked: Are there, O Lord, any beings in the future, in the last time, in the last epoch, in the last 500 years, at the time of the collapse of the good doctrine who, on hearing such dharmas, will truly believe?

爾時,慧命須菩提白佛言:「世尊!頗有眾生,於未來世,聞說是法,生信心不?」

 

The Lord replied: They, Subhuti, are neither beings nor no-beings. And why? 'Beings, beings', Subhuti, the Tathagata has taught that they are all no-beings. Therefore has he spoken of 'all beings'. What do you think, Subhuti, is there any dharma by which the Tathagata has fully known the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment?

佛言:「須菩提!彼非眾生,非不眾生。何以故?須菩提!眾生眾生者,如來說非眾生,是名眾生。」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord, there is not any dharma by which the Tathagata has fully known the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment.

須菩提白佛言:「世尊!佛得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,為無所得耶?」

 

The Lord said: So it is, Subhuti, so it is. Not even the least (anu) dharma is there found or got at. Therefore is it called 'utmost (anuttara), right and perfect enlightenment'.

「如是,如是。須菩提!我於阿耨多羅三藐三菩提乃至無有少法可得,是名阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。

 

Furthermore, Subhuti, self-identical (sama) is that dharma, and nothing is therein at variance (vishama). Therefore is it called 'utmost, right (samyak) and perfect (sam-) enlightenment'. Self-identical through the absence of a self, a being, a soul, or a person, the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment is fully known as the totality of all the wholesome dharmas. 'Wholesome dharmas, wholesome dharmas', Subhuti yet as nodharmas have they been taught by the Tathagata. Therefore are they called 'wholesome dharmas'.

「復次,須菩提!是法平等,無有高下,是名阿耨多羅三藐三菩提;以無我、無人、無眾生、無壽者,修一切善法,則得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。須菩提!所言善法者,如來說非善法,是名善法。

 

And again, Subhuti, if a woman or man had piled up the seven precious things until their bulk equaled that of all the Sumerus, kings of mountains, in the world system of 1,000 million worlds, and would give them as a gift; and if, on the other hand, a son or daughter of good family would take up from this Prajnaparamita, this discourse on Dharma, but one stanza of four lines, and demonstrate it to others, compared with his heap of merit the former heap of merit does not approach one hundredth part, etc., until we come to, it will not bear any comparison.

「須菩提!若三千大千世界中所有諸須彌山王,如是等七寶聚,有人持用布施;若人以此《般若波羅蜜經》,乃至四句偈等,受持讀誦、為他人說,於前福德百分不及一,百千萬億分,乃至算數譬喻所不能及。

 

What do you think, Subhuti, does it occur to a Tathagata, 'by me have beings been set free'? Not thus should you see it, Subhuti! And why? There is not any being whom the Tathagata has set free. Again, if there had been any being whom the Tathagata had set free, then surely there would have been on the part of the Tathagata a seizing of a self, of a being, of a soul, of a person. 'Seizing of a self', as a no-seizing, Subhuti, has that been taught by the Tathagata. And yet the foolish common people have seized upon it. 'Foolish common people', Subhuti, as really no people have they been taught by the Tathagata. Therefore are they called 'foolish common people'.

「須菩提!於意云何?汝等勿謂如來作是念:『我當度眾生。』須菩提!莫作是念。何以故?實無有眾生如來度者,若有眾生如來度者,如來則有我人眾生壽者。須菩提!如來說:『有我者,則非有我,而凡夫之人以為有我。』須菩提!凡夫者,如來說則非凡夫。

 

What do you think, Subhuti, is the Tathagata to be seen by means of his possession of marks?

「須菩提!於意云何?可以三十二相觀如來不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord.

須菩提言:「如是!如是!以三十二相觀如來。」

 

The Lord said: If, Subhuti, the Tathagata could be recognized by his possession of marks, then also the universal monarch would be a Tathagata. Therefore the Tathagata is not to be seen by means of his possession of marks.

佛言:「須菩提!若以三十二相觀如來者,轉輪聖王則是如來。」

 

Subhuti then said: As I, O Lord, understand the Lord's teaching, the Tathagata is not to be seen through his possession of marks.

須菩提白佛言:「世尊!如我解佛所說義,不應以三十二相觀如來。」

 

Further the Lord taught on that occasion the following stanzas:

爾時,世尊而說偈言:

 

Those who by my form did see me, And those who followed me by voice Wrong the efforts they engaged in, Me those people will not see.

「若以色見我 以音聲求我  是人行邪道 不能見如來

 

From the Dharma should one see the Buddhas, From the Dharmabodies comes their guidance. Yet Dharma's true nature cannot be discerned, And no one can be conscious of it as an object.

「須菩提!汝若作是念:『如來不以具足相故,得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。』須菩提!莫作是念:『如來不以具足相故,得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。』

 

What do you think, Subhuti, has the Tathagata fully known the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment through his possession of marks? Not so should you see it, Subhuti. And why? Because the Tathagata could surely not have fully known the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment through his possession of marks. Nor should anyone, Subhuti, say to you, 'those who have set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle have conceived the destruction of a dharma, or its annihilation'. Not so should you see it, Subhuti! For those who have set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle have not conceived the destruction of a dharma, or its annihilation.

「須菩提!汝若作是念,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提者,說諸法斷滅。莫作是念!何以故?發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提者,於法不說斷滅相。

 

And again, Subhuti, if a son or daughter of good family had filled with the seven precious things as many world systems as there are grains of sand in the river Ganges, and gave them as a gift to the Tathagatas, Arhats, fully Enlightened Ones, and if on the other hand a Bodhisattva would gain the patient acquiescence in dharmas which are nothing of themselves and which fail to be produced, then this latter would on the strength of that beget a greater heap of merit, immeasurable and incalculable. Moreover, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva should not acquire a heap of merit.

「須菩提!若菩薩以滿琲e沙等世界七寶布施;若復有人知一切法無我,得成於忍,此菩薩勝前菩薩所得功德。須菩提!以諸菩薩不受福德故。」

 

Subhuti said: Surely, O Lord, the Bodhisattva should acquire a heap of merit?

須菩提白佛言:「世尊!云何菩薩不受福德?

 

The Lord said: 'Should acquire', Subhuti, not 'should seize upon.' Therefore is it said, 'should acquire'.

 「須菩提!菩薩所作福德,不應貪著,是故說不受福德。

 

Whosoever says that the Tathagata goes or comes, stands, sits or lies down, he does not understand the meaning of my teaching. And why? 'Tathagata' is called one who has not gone anywhere, nor come from anywhere. Therefore is he called 'the Tathagata, the Arhat, the fully Enlightened One'.

「須菩提!若有人言:如來若來若去、若坐若臥,是人不解我所說義。何以故?如來者,無所從來,亦無所去,故名如來。

 

And again, Subhuti, if a son or daughter of good family were to grind as many world systems as there are particles of dust in this great world system of 1,000 million worlds, as finely as they can be ground with incalculable vigour, and in fact reduce them to something like a collection of atomic quantities, what do you think, Subhuti, would that be an enormous collection of atomic quantities?

「須菩提!若善男子、善女人,以三千大千世界碎為微塵,於意云何?是微塵眾寧為多不?」

 

Subhuti replied: So it is, O Lord, so it is, O Well- Gone, enormous would that collection of atomic quantities be! And why? If, O Lord, there had been an enormous collection of atomic quantities, the Lord would not have called it an 'enormous collection of atomic quantities'. And why? What was taught by the Tathagata as a 'collection of atomic quantities', as a no-collection that was taught by the Tathagata. Therefore is it called a 'collection of atomic quantities'. And what the Tathagata taught as 'the world system of 1,000 million worlds', that he has taught as a no-system. Therefore is it called 'the world system of 1,000 million worlds'. And why? If, O Lord, there had been a world system, that would have been a case of seizing on a material object, and what was taught as 'seizing on a material object' by the Tathagata, just as a no-seizing was that taught by the Tathagata. Therefore is it called 'seizing on a material object'.

「甚多,世尊!何以故?若是微塵眾實有者,佛則不說是微塵眾,所以者何?佛說:微塵眾,則非微塵眾,是名微塵眾。世尊!如來所說三千大千世界,則非世界,是名世界。何以故?若世界實有,則是一合相。如來說:一合相,則非一合相,是名一合相。」

 

The Lord added: And also, Subhuti, that 'seizing on a material object' is a matter of linguistic convention, a verbal expression without factual content. It is not a dharma nor a no-dharma. And yet the foolish common people have seized upon it. And why? Because whosoever would say that the view of a self has been taught by the Tathagata, the view of a being, the view of a living soul, the view of a person, would he, Subhuti, be speaking right?

「須菩提!一合相者,則是不可說,但凡夫之人貪著其事。

 「須菩提!若人言:佛說我見、人見、眾生見、壽者見。須菩提!於意云何?是人解我所說義不?」

 

Subhuti replied: No indeed, O Lord, no indeed, O Well-Gone, he would not be speaking right. And why? That which has been taught by the Tathagata as 'view of self', as a no-view has that been taught by the Tathagata. Therefore is it called 'view of self'.

「世尊!是人不解如來所說義。何以故?世尊說:我見、人見、眾生見、壽者見,即非我見、人見、眾生見、壽者見,是名我見、人見、眾生見、壽者見。」

 

The Lord said: It is thus, Subhuti, that someone who has set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle should know all dharmas, view them, be intent on them. And he should know, view and be intent on them in such a way that he does not set up the perception of a dharma. And why? 'Perception of dharma, perception of dharma, 'Subhuti, as noperception has this been taught by the Tathagata. Therefore is it called 'perception of dharma'.

「須菩提!發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心者,於一切法,應如是知,如是見,如是信解,不生法相。須菩提!所言法相者,如來說即非法相,是名法相。

 

And finally, Subhuti, if a Bodhisattva, a great being had filled world-systems immeasurable and incalculable with the seven precious things, and gave them as a gift to the Tathagatas, the Arhats, the fully Enlightened Ones, and if, on the other hand, a son or daughter of good family had taken from this Prajnaparamita, this discourse on Dharma, but one stanza of four lines, and were to bear it in mind, demonstrate, recite and study it, and illuminate it in full detail for others, on the strength of that this latter would beget a greater heap of merit, immeasurable and incalculable. And how would he illuminate it? So as not to reveal. Therefore is it said, 'he would illuminate'. As stars, a fault of vision, as a lamp, A mock show, dew drops, or a bubble, A dream, a lightning flash, or cloud, So should one view what is conditioned.

「須菩提!若有人以滿無量阿僧祇世界七寶持用布施,若有善男子、善女人,發菩薩心者,持於此經,乃至四句偈等,受持讀誦,為人演說,其福勝彼。云何為人演說,不取於相,如如不動。何以故?

「一切有為法 如夢幻泡影  如露亦如電 應作如是觀」

 

Thus spoke the Lord. Enraptured, the Elder Subhuti, the monks and nuns, the pious laymen and laywomen, and the Bodhisattvas, and the whole world with its Gods, men, Asuras and Gandharvas rejoiced in the Lord's teaching. - This completes the Diamond- Cutter of Perfect Wisdom.

佛說是經已,長老須菩提及諸比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷、一切世間、天、人、阿修羅,聞佛所說,皆大歡喜,信受奉行。